. //-partie, 1 : chambre, rectangle de 2x3 mm // avec canal de 100 µm translate

/. Translate,

/. Translate,

. //-partie, , vol.2

, // Entrée huile 1 translate

. //-partie, , vol.3

. //-partie, , vol.4

, // Sortie 1 et sortie 2 : cercle de rayon de 1 mm translate

. //linear_extrude,

. //linear_extrude,

, //polygon(points=

. //-partie, , vol.4

. //translate,

. //linear_extrude,

, //polygon(points=

. //translate,

. //linear_extrude,

, /2 : première flow-focusing // Canal de 200 µm de large translate

, // Entrée huile 1 translate

. //-partie, , vol.4

. //translate,

. //linear_extrude,

, //polygon(points=

. //translate,

. //linear_extrude,

, // Sortie 1 translate

, // Partie 5 : support avec deux ouvertures pour faciliter le démoulage difference() { translate

/. Translate,

/. Translate,

. //-partie, , vol.2, p.1

. //-partie, , vol.3, p.2

, // Entrée huile 1 translate

, // Canal 400 µm de large translate

, // Canal 400 µm de large translate

, // Partie 5 : support avec deux ouvertures pour faciliter le démoulage difference() { translate

. }-[almeida, Membrane re-arrangements and rippled phase stabilisation by the cell penetrating peptide penetratin, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta -Biomembranes, vol.1858, issue.11, pp.2584-2591, 2016.

. Alves, Membrane interaction and perturbation mechanisms induced by two cationic cell penetrating peptides with distinct charge distribution, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta -General Subjects, vol.16, pp.948-959, 2008.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00407766

[. Åmand, Stimulated endocytosis in penetratin uptake : Effect of arginine and lysine, Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol.371, issue.4, p.11, 2008.

[. Ando, A High-speed Atomic Force Microscope for Studying Biological Macromolecules in Action, ChemPhysChem, vol.4, issue.11, pp.1196-1202, 2001.

[. Andreas, BOUNDARY TENSION BY PENDANT DROPS <sup>1</sup>, The Journal of Physical Chemistry, vol.42, issue.8, pp.1001-1019, 1937.

[. Andree, Binding of vascular anticoagulant alpha (VAC alpha) to planar phospholipid bilayers, The Journal of biological chemistry, vol.265, issue.9, pp.4923-4928, 1990.

. Angelova, Preparation of giant vesicles by external AC electric fields. Kinetics and applications, Trends in Colloid and Interface Science VI, vol.131, pp.127-131, 1992.

[. Anna, Formation of dispersions using "flow focusing" in microchannels, Applied Physics Letters, vol.82, issue.3, p.83, 2003.

P. Aronson, M. P. Aronson, and H. M. Princen, Contact angles associated with thin liquid films in emulsions, Nature, vol.286, issue.5771, pp.370-372, 1980.

A. Ashkin and J. M. Dziedzic, Optical trapping and manipulation of single living cells using infra-red laser beams, Berichte der Bunsengesellschaft für physikalische Chemie, vol.93, pp.254-260, 1989.

[. Bagatolli, L. A. Gratton-;-bagatolli, and E. Gratton, Two photon fluorescence microscopy of coexisting lipid domains in giant unilamellar vesicles of binary phospholipid mixtures, Biophysical Journal, vol.78, issue.1, pp.290-305, 2000.

[. Bai, A double droplet trap system for studying mass transport across a droplet-droplet interface, Lab on a Chip, vol.10, issue.10, p.89, 2010.

[. Baumgart, Large-scale fluid/fluid phase separation of proteins and lipids in giant plasma membrane vesicles, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.104, issue.9, p.49, 2007.

T. H. Bayburt and S. G. Sligar, Membrane protein assembly into Nanodiscs, FEBS Letters, vol.584, issue.9, p.52, 2010.

[. Bechara, Tryptophan within basic peptide sequences triggers glycosaminoglycan-dependent endocytosis, FASEB Journal, vol.27, issue.2, pp.738-749, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00744509

. Bechara, C. Sagan-;-bechara, and S. Sagan, Cell-Penetrating Peptides : 20 Years Later, Where Do We Stand ?, FEBS Lett, vol.587, p.74, 2013.

. Ben-m&apos;barek, ER Membrane Phospholipids and Surface Tension Control Cellular Lipid Droplet Formation, Developmental Cell, vol.41, issue.6, p.67, 2017.

A. Benmerah and C. Lamaze, Endocytose : Chaque voie compte ! Medecine/Sciences, vol.18, pp.1126-1136, 2002.

[. Bennink, Unfolding individual nucleosomes by stretching single chromatin fibers with optical tweezers, Nature Structural Biology, vol.8, issue.7, pp.606-610, 2001.

Q. Binnig, G. Binnig, and C. F. Quate, Atomic Force Microscope, Physical Review Letters, vol.56, issue.9, pp.930-933, 1986.

R. Binnig, G. Binnig, and H. Rohrer, Scanning tunneling microscopy, Surface Science, vol.126, issue.126, pp.236-244, 1982.

M. S. Bretscher, Asymmetrical lipid bilayer structure for biological membranes, Nature New Biology, vol.236, issue.61, pp.11-12, 1972.

X. Chen, 2015 Droplet-based Microfluidic Chip Design for High Throughput Screening Applications, vol.84, p.93, 2015.

[. Delaroche, Tracking a new cell-penetrating (W/R) nonapeptide, through an enzyme-stable mass spectrometry reporter tag, Analytical Chemistry, vol.79, issue.5, p.12, 2007.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00678718

[. Derossi, The third helix of the Antennapedia homeodomain translocates through biological membranes, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.269, issue.14, p.9, 1994.

[. Devaux, How lipid flippases can modulate membrane structure, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta -Biomembranes, vol.1778, issue.7-8, p.61, 2008.

. Bibliographie-[elani, Novel technologies for the formation of 2-D and 3-D droplet interface bilayer networks, Lab on a Chip, vol.12, issue.18, 2012.

[. Elani, Microfluidic generation of encapsulated droplet interface bilayer networks (multisomes) and their use as cell-like reactors, Chem. Commun, vol.52, issue.35, p.85, 2016.

. Evans, Sensitive force technique to probe molecular adhesion and structural linkages at biological interfaces, Biophysical Journal, vol.68, issue.6, p.31, 1995.

[. Fawell, Tat-mediated delivery of heterologous proteins into cells, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.91, issue.2, pp.664-668, 1994.

[. Finer, Single myosin molecule mechanics : Piconewton forces and nanometre steps, Nature, vol.368, issue.6467, pp.113-119, 1994.

P. Frankel, A. D. Frankel, and C. O. Pabo, Cellular uptake of the tat protein from human immunodeficiency virus, Cell, vol.55, issue.6, pp.1189-1193, 1988.

[. Frenz, Microfluidic production of droplet pairs, Langmuir, vol.24, issue.20, pp.12073-12076, 2008.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02148748

[. Funakoshi, Lipid bilayer formation by contacting monolayers in a microfluidic device for membrane protein analysis, Analytical Chemistry, vol.78, issue.24, p.54, 2006.

[. Futaki, Arginine-rich peptides. An abundant source of membranepermeable peptides having potential as carriers for intracellular protein delivery, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.276, issue.8, pp.5836-5840, 2001.

A. M. Gañán-calvo-;-gañán-calvo, Generation of Steady Liquid Microthreads and Micron-Sized Monodisperse Sprays in Gas Streams, Physical Review Letters, vol.80, issue.2, pp.285-288, 1998.

. Gañán-calvo, A. M. Gordillo-;-gañán-calvo, and J. M. Gordillo, Perfectly Monodisperse Microbubbling by Capillary Flow Focusing, Physical Review Letters, vol.87, issue.27, p.82, 2001.

[. Gopalan, Magnetic tweezers : Micromanipulation and force measurement at the molecular level, ASME 2010 International Mechanical Engineering Congress and Exposition, vol.84, pp.3314-3329, 2002.

J. M. Gump and S. F. Dowdy, TAT transduction : the molecular mechanism and therapeutic prospects, Trends in Molecular Medicine, vol.13, issue.10, pp.443-448, 2007.

[. Harder, Lipid domain structure of the plasma membrane revealed by patching of membrane components, Journal of Cell Biology, vol.141, issue.4, pp.929-942, 1998.

[. Herce, Arginine-rich peptides destabilize the plasma membrane, consistent with a pore formation translocation mechanism of cell-penetrating peptides, Biophysical Journal, vol.97, issue.7, p.50, 2009.

[. Huang, Direct quantitation of peptide-mediated protein transport across a droplet-interface bilayer, Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol.133, issue.40, pp.15818-15821, 2011.

[. Hwang, Asymmetric droplet interface bilayers, Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol.130, issue.18, p.61, 2008.

[. Iwamoto, Concurrent In Vitro Synthesis and Functional Detection of Nascent Activity of the KcsA Channel Under a Membrane Potential Concurrent In Vitro Synthesis and Functional Detection of Nascent Activity of the KcsA Channel Under a Membrane Potential, p.55, 2018.

A. Jégou, Étude de l'Adhésion Gamétique par Mesure de Force ; Modulation des propriétés d'adhésion par organisation des protéines membranaires, p.31, 2008.

[. Jiao, Translocation and endocytosis for cell-penetrating peptide internalization, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.284, issue.49, p.74, 2009.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00627026

[. Joanne, Lipid reorganization induced by membrane-active peptides probed using differential scanning calorimetry, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta -Biomembranes, vol.1788, issue.9, pp.1772-1781, 2009.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00639180

[. Joliot, Antennapedia homeobox peptide regulates neural morphogenesis, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.88, p.9, 1991.

[. Kawamoto, Inverted micelle formation of cell-penetrating peptide studied by coarse-grained simulation : Importance of attractive force between cellpenetrating peptides and lipid head group, Journal of Chemical Physics, vol.46, issue.9, pp.13696-13703, 2007.

[. Kotz, Three-dimensional printing of transparent fused silica glass, Nature, vol.544, issue.7650, pp.337-339, 2017.

[. Ku?erka, Fluid phase lipid areas and bilayer thicknesses of commonly used phosphatidylcholines as a function of temperature, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta -Biomembranes, vol.1808, issue.11, pp.47-52, 1996.

. Bibliographie-[li, Energetics and dynamics of SNAREpin folding across lipid bilayers, Nature Structural and Molecular Biology, vol.14, issue.10, pp.890-896, 2007.

[. Li, Peptide-Mediated Membrane Transport of Macromolecular Cargo Driven by Membrane Asymmetry, Analytical Chemistry, vol.89, issue.22, pp.12369-12374, 2017.

M. Mager, M. D. Mager, and N. A. Melosh, Lipid bilayer deposition and patterning via air bubble collapse, Langmuir, vol.23, issue.18, pp.9369-9377, 2007.

[. Maniti, Distinct behaviour of the homeodomain derived cell penetrating peptide penetratin in interaction with different phospholipids, PLoS ONE, issue.12, p.9, 2010.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00618692

[. Marty, , 2013.

, Nanodisc-solubilized membrane protein library reflects the membrane proteome, Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, vol.405, issue.12, pp.4009-4016

S. Matosevic and B. M. Paegel, Stepwise synthesis of giant unilamellar vesicles on a microfluidic assembly line, Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol.133, issue.9, pp.2798-2800, 2011.

[. Mazutis, A fast and efficient microfluidic system for highly selective one-to-one droplet fusion, Lab on a Chip, vol.9, issue.18, 2009.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02148760

[. Mazutis, Multi-step microfluidic droplet processing : kinetic analysis of an in vitro translated enzyme, Lab on a Chip, vol.9, issue.20, 2009.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02332967

[. Mitchell, Polyarginine enters cells more efficiently than other polycationic homopolymers, Journal of Peptide Research, vol.56, issue.5, pp.318-325, 2000.

. Morris, , 2001.

T. Echnical-r-eport, A peptide carrier for the delivery of biologically active proteins into mammalian cells, Cell, vol.19, p.12

[. Mueller, Reconstitution of cell membrane structure in vitro and its transformation into an excitable system, Nature, vol.194, issue.4832, pp.979-980, 1962.

[. Nakase, Accumulation of arginine-rich cell-penetrating peptides in tumors and the potential for anticancer drug delivery in vivo, Journal of Controlled Release, vol.159, issue.2, pp.181-188, 2012.

. Naumann, Incorporation of Membrane Proteins in Solid-Supported Lipid Layers, Angewandte Chemie International Edition in English, vol.34, issue.18, pp.2056-2058, 1995.

S. Neher, E. Neher, and B. Sakmann, Single-channel currents recorded from membrane of denervated frog muscle fibres, Nature, vol.260, issue.5554, p.37, 1976.

. Nguyen, Hydrodynamic trapping for rapid assembly and in situ electrical characterization of droplet interface bilayer arrays, Lab Chip, vol.16, issue.18, p.90, 2016.

[. Oiki, S. Iwamoto-;-oiki, and M. Iwamoto, Lipid bilayers manipulated through monolayer technologies for studies of channel-membrane interplay, Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol.41, issue.3, pp.303-311, 2018.

[. Olson, In vivo characterization of activatable cell penetrating peptides for targeting protease activity in cancer, Integrative Biology, vol.1, pp.382-393, 2009.

[. Oteyza, Direct Imaging of Covalent Bond Structure in Single-Molecule Chemical Reactions Dimas, vol.21, pp.1434-1438, 2013.

[. Perez, The Surface Force Apparatus to Reveal the Energetics of Biomolecules Assembly. Application to DNA Bases Pairing and SNARE Fusion Proteins Folding, Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering, vol.1, issue.4, p.20, 2008.

[. Pincet, FRAP to characterize molecular diffusion and interaction in various membrane environments, PLoS ONE, vol.11, issue.7, p.63, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01360185

F. Pincet and J. Husson, The solution to the streptavidin-biotin paradox : The influence of history on the strength of single molecular bonds, Biophysical Journal, vol.89, issue.6, p.31, 2005.

[. Plénat, Coexistence of a two-states organization for a cell-penetrating peptide in lipid bilayer, Biophysical Journal, vol.89, issue.6, pp.4300-4309, 2005.

[. Pooga, Cell penetration by transportan, The Faseb Journal, vol.12, issue.1, p.11, 2017.

P. Poulin and J. Bibette, Adhesion of Water Droplets in Organic Solvent, Langmuir, vol.14, issue.22, p.57, 1998.

[. Richard, Cell-penetrating peptides : A reevaluation of the mechanism of cellular uptake, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.278, issue.1, pp.585-590, 2003.

[. Rodriguez, Giant vesicles formed by gentle hydration and electroformation : A comparison by fluorescence microscopy, Colloids and Surfaces B : Biointerfaces, vol.42, issue.2, 2005.

[. Rounsevell, Atomic force microscopy : Mechanical unfolding of proteins, Methods, vol.34, issue.1, pp.100-111, 2004.

[. Säälik, Penetration without cells : Membrane translocation of cell-penetrating peptides in the model giant plasma membrane vesicles, Journal of Controlled Release, vol.153, issue.2, pp.117-125, 2011.

[. Schwarze, vivo Protein Transduction : Delivery of a Biologically Active Protein into the Mouse, vol.285, pp.1569-1572, 1999.

[. Scopigno, Digital Fabrication Techniques for Cultural Heritage : A Survey, Computer Graphics Forum, vol.36, issue.1, pp.6-21, 2017.

[. Sharonov, A. Hochstrasser-;-sharonov, and R. M. Hochstrasser, Singlemolecule imaging of the association of the cell-penetrating peptide Pep-1 to model membranes, Biochemistry, vol.46, issue.27, pp.7963-7972, 2007.

[. Shin, Nature Protocols, vol.40, issue.6, pp.1301-1315, 2012.

S. J. Singer and G. L. Nicolson, The Fluid Mosaic Model of the Structure of Cell Membranes, Science, vol.175, issue.4023, pp.720-731, 1972.

P. P. Soule, Étude des mécanismes de translocation des Peptides Pénétrateurs de Cellules (CPP) à l'aide de techniques biophysiques, vol.27, p.71, 2015.

[. Stan, Independent control of drop size and velocity in microfluidic flow-focusing generators using variable temperature and flow rate, Analytical Chemistry, vol.81, issue.6, p.84, 2009.

[. Stanley, A microfluidic approach for high-throughput droplet interface bilayer (DIB) formation, Chemical Communications, vol.46, issue.10, 2010.

F. Szoka and D. Papahadjopoulos, COMPA-RATIVE PROPERTIES AND METHODS OF PREPARATION OF LIPID VESICLES (LIPOSOMES), Cancer Research, vol.46, pp.467-508, 1980.

[. Thiam, Adhesive emulsion bilayers under an electric field : From unzipping to fusion, Physical Review Letters, issue.6, p.107, 2011.

[. Thiam, From stability to permeability of adhesive emulsion bilayers, Langmuir, vol.28, issue.15, p.89, 2012.

[. Thompson, Enhanced stability and fluidity in droplet on hydrogel bilayers for measuring membrane protein diffusion, Nano Letters, vol.7, issue.12, p.63, 2007.

[. Thorsen, Dynamic pattern formation in a vesicle-generating microfluidic device, Physical Review Letters, vol.86, issue.18, p.83, 2001.

[. Tsofina, Production of bimolecular protein-lipid membranes in aqueous solution, Nature, vol.212, issue.5063, pp.681-683, 1966.

[. Van-meer-;-van-meer and G. , Dynamic transbilayer lipid asymmetry, Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology, vol.3, issue.5, p.61, 2011.

. Vives, A Truncated HIV-1 Tat Protein Basic Domain Rapidly Translocates through the Plasma Membrane and Accumulates in the Cell Nucleus, The Journal of biological chemistry, vol.272, issue.25, pp.16010-16017, 1997.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02194312

[. Walrant, Different membrane behaviour and cellular uptake of three basic arginine-rich peptides, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta -Biomembranes, vol.1808, issue.1, pp.382-393, 2011.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02467762

[. Walrant, Direct translocation of cell-penetrating peptides in liposomes : A combined mass spectrometry quantification and fluorescence detection study, Analytical Biochemistry, vol.438, issue.1, pp.1-10, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00805222

[. Ward, Microfluidic flow focusing : Drop size and scaling in pressure versus flow-rate-driven pumping, Electrophoresis, vol.26, issue.19, pp.3716-3724, 2005.

[. Wender, The design of guanidinium-rich transporters and their internalization mechanisms, Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, vol.60, issue.4-5, pp.452-472, 2008.

[. Williams, Selective inhibition of growth factor-stimulated mitogenesis by a cell-permeable Grb2-binding peptide, The Journal of biological chemistry, vol.272, issue.35, p.12, 1997.

[. Xu, Droplet-based microfluidic device for multiple-droplet clustering, Lab Chip, vol.12, issue.4, 2012.

[. Yin, Transcription Against an Applied Force. Science, vol.270, issue.5242, pp.1653-1657, 1995.